domingo, 23 de octubre de 2016

La Russie met aujourd'hui en œuvre une véritable stratégie globale ...

L’URSS tient-elle sa vengeance posthume avec un Vladimir Poutine prêt à précipiter l’explosion de l’Union européenne ?

Alors que s'est tenue cette semaine une rencontre au format Normandie pour résoudre le conflit ukrainien, les tensions actuelles entre Vladimir Poutine et les dirigeants européens - au premier rang desquels François Hollande - rendent peu probable un désengagement de la Russie en Ukraine. D'autant plus que ce conflit, qui s'inscrit dans une stratégie globale de déstabilisation, permet à la Russie de menacer son "étranger proche" et de décourager toute velléité d'association avec l'Union européenne.


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sábado, 22 de octubre de 2016

If Tim Kaine Wins, the Catholic Church Loses

If Tim Kaine Wins, the Catholic Church Loses
by Doug Mainwaring on October 17th, 2016
Many high-profile Catholics like Tim Kaine publicly dissent from Catholic teaching and promote offenses against human dignity. When their actions go unrebuked by Church leaders, it harms both the Church as a whole and the faith of individual Catholics.
No, We Should Not Legalize Recreational Marijuana Use
by Tim Bradley on October 18th, 2016
Legalizing recreational marijuana use would hurt not only those who smoke—it also hurts children and society as a whole. As a country, if we encourage and profit from this vice, we will be undermining the very foundations of our government.
The Future of Pro-Life Legislation and Litigation
by Gerard V. Bradley on October 18th, 2016
In her landmark 1971 paper, Judith Jarvis Thomson tried to defend abortion by appeal to norms of justification consistently applicable in a range of other cases. By contrast, the courts in and after Roe and Casey have treated the right to abortion as an unquestionable legal principle. This inverted approach is doomed to fail as it continues to reveal the anomalous character of abortion rights.
In science and philosophy, politics and society, the Enlightenment and the Faith could and did bring mutual intelligibility to each other, showing no intrinsic incompatibility—“faith cannot collide with enlightened reason,” a new book reminds us, for truth cannot contradict truth.
2016 and the Future of the Supreme Court
by Nathaniel Bruno on October 21st, 2016
What would happen if a justice with the judicial philosophy and record of Justice Ginsburg were to replace Justice Scalia on the Court?
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The rift between wording and practice becomes understandable in light of the case law of international courts.

Russia’s Military Exercises and the Prohibition on the Threat of Force

by Szymon Zaręba

Staging military exercises which include certain offensive elements or deployment of ballistic missiles in direct proximity of a border of another state do not constitute a violation of the prohibition of the threat of force stipulated in Article 2, Para. 4 of the Charter of the United Nations. However, their legality could be questioned if they were accompanied by a demand of a certain conduct by other entities. It would be difficult to prove that Russian exercises held close to the borders of the members of NATO constitute a violation of said prohibition or any other treaty norms. Still, NATO member states should jointly assess Russian actions as to their compliance with the legal prohibition of threats of force as an instrument of the foreign policy.

The increased tension in relations between NATO states and Russia in the last few years has manifested itself in part in the form of Russia’s controversial decisions to redeploy ballistic missiles closer to NATO territory and increase the frequency and scale of its military manoeuvres. Publicly available information indicates the number of troops participating in these exercises is growing and reveals the close proximity of these provocative Russian actions to objects (e.g., airplanes) and the territory of members of the Alliance. They also point to concerning offensive elements that have appeared more often in the Russian exercise scenarios in which the use of nuclear weapons is envisaged. These factors contribute to an atmosphere of danger. Thus, it seems natural to ask whether these kinds of actions may be interpreted as violations of the norms of international law, specifically those prohibiting the threat of force.
Legal Nature of the Prohibition

Various treaties frame the prohibition of the threat of force, in particular the Charter of the United Nations (UNC) and the founding instruments of regional organisations such as the Organisation of American States (OAS), the African Union (AU), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). So far, however, this prohibition has not been reflected in any international agreement that refers to the European continent alone. It was expressed only in a non-legally binding declaration attached to the 1975 Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Neither does it enjoy the status of a rule of customary international law.

Still, the fact remains that both the NATO states and Russia are bound in their relations by Article 2, Para. 4 of the UNC. This provision imposes on all members of the United Nations an obligation to refrain “from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations”. It is assumed in the judicial decisions and literature of international law that this provision relates to all threats of force regardless of their aim and that the three cases mentioned in the text are only examples.

Due to Russia’s suspension in 2007 of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), there are no other treaty norms through which to assess the legality of its actions. Instruments adopted within the framework of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), such as the 2011 Vienna Document on Confidence and Security-Building Measures, do not have any legal status.
International Practice

Threats of force generally do not meet with a firm response from the international organisations established to protect the peace and security on a global or regional scale. They usually become a matter of interest for these relevant institutions only after the actual use of force. Even then, charges of the use of threat are normally considered to be less important than those concerning real actions, or are even completely left aside.

A good example of this is the international reaction to Iraq’s rhetoric starting in July 1990 about launching an attack against Kuwait, combined with demands that the latter cease its encroachment on Iraq’s oil reserves and the concentration of several dozen Iraqi troops on the border between the two states. These actions did not meet with any response from the UN. The Security Council issued its first response to this conflict only when the Iraqi forces began the invasion of Kuwait. What is more, neither this UNresolution nor later ones, mentioned the threats that preceded the attack. One can, therefore, notice a serious discrepancy between the strict wording of the UNC and common practice.


NATO has some long-term questions to answer ...

The Kuznetsov questions for NATO

By Nick Childs, Senior Fellow for Naval Forces and Maritime Security

The Russian Navy's sole aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov, has been deployed and is thought to be headed to the eastern Mediterranean. Nick Childs argues that despite the carrier's somewhat limited capabilities, NATO has some long-term questions to answer about how to respond to Moscow's willingness to use its maritime assets more assertively.

The Russian Navy's only aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov, has now embarked on its much-heralded and much-anticipated latest deployment from the Northern Fleet with a group of accompanying warships and support vessels, including the nuclear-powered battlecruiser Pyotr Veliky and the Udaloy-class destroyers Vice-Admiral Kulakov and Severomorsk.

Their presumed destination includes the eastern Mediterranean. They have already been tracked by Norwegian naval and maritime air assets, with other NATO surveillance capabilities on standby, and the carrier has already been observed conducting some limited air operations.

In one sense, this deployment fits into an established pattern of periodic sorties by the Admiral Kuznetsov in recent years. But the timing and strategic backdrop means that, this time, it is set to attract even more attention, not least given the ever-sharpening frictions with the West and the anguished debate over the trajectory of the Syria conflict and Russia's ambitions and intentions there.

The Admiral Kuznetsov itself is an elderly platform with a questionable reliability record. It remains uncertain the extent to which the carrier is deploying with a comprehensive air group. So far, only limited numbers of Su-33s and newer MiG-29Ks have been observed on the flight deck. Likewise, the accompanying warships are legacy platforms from the Soviet era.

Nevertheless, they do carry some significant capabilities. The carrier and the battlecruiser in particular are armed with the SS-N-19 Shipwreck/3M45 Granit surface-to-surface cruise missile. So they represent more than just a symbol of power projection. One uncertainty is what submarine assets may be accompanying the group and – equally – what NATO might also be deploying in terms of unseen surveillance.


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Errores de las “teologías” actuales entre los fieles católicos

Los graves efectos de la "teología actual"

por Manuel Ocampo Ponce

A raíz de un comentario que hice sobre las pruebas de la inmortalidad del alma humana en una red social, un bautizado sin estudios de Filosofía y Teología, me alegaba que lo que importa en la fe cristiana no es la doctrina sino la experiencia. Dentro de la discusión otros, también bautizados, alegaban que eso de demostrar la existencia de Dios y de las pruebas de la inmortalidad del alma es pura soberbia porque lo importante no es la fe en el sentido filosófico, sino la fe de humildad. 

Estas afirmaciones, entre otras, me hicieron ver hasta qué punto han permeado los errores de las “teologías” actuales entre los fieles católicos. De inmediato pensé en el error tan difundido de la incorporación del método histórico-crítico como hermenéutica estructuralista desde la que se ha pretendido interpretar la Sagrada Escritura, en lo que se refiere a la relación entre la experiencia humana actual y la fe católica. 

También recordé un brillante estudio del gran filósofo cristiano, el Dr. Alberto Caturelli, que nos presenta un muestrario de estos errores difundidos por renombrados “teólogos” que, dicho sea de paso, contradicen totalmente el Catecismo de la Iglesia Católica. Esa ha sido la razón por la que decidí acudir a él para presentarles de modo muy breve una parte del panorama del que proceden las mencionadas ideas.

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por Manuel Ocampo Ponce

Uno de los grandes filósofos del siglo XX y XXI, Alberto Caturelli, nos presenta un análisis muy claro de lo que sucede en la “teología” actual.[1] Y es que es un hecho, a estas alturas innegable, que la verdadera imagen de Dios ha sido alterada por el espíritu mundano hasta el punto en el que las estructuras nos empujan a vivir en un ateísmo teórico y práctico. Porque además, ya se ve que en un mundo autosuficiente y tecnificado, Dios acaba por no tener un lugar.

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Catholics are right to be wary of the Clinton machine.

Queen Hillary and King Henry
by Fr. Dwight Longenecker

This article in the Boston Globe (of all places!) gives you the run down on Hiliary Clinton’s anti Catholic stance.

What I like about it is the comparison to Henry VIII

After King Henry VIII broke ties with the Catholic Church because of a dispute over marriage, Catholics were treated very badly. Bishops were locked up. Monasteries were closed. Tens of thousands were executed in the bloody turmoil of the English Reformation.

All of which raises an interesting point: If the church wouldn’t change its doctrine for the king of England, what makes Hillary Clinton think she can 
change it?

Clinton and Kaine exhibit all the terrifying ignorance of all ideologues. The ideologue is the ultimate example of self righteousness. In their view, they are right and their agenda is good so it must be imposed on others no matter what the cost.

Catholics are right to be wary of the Clinton machine. She and her husband have shown themselves to be ruthless in their grasp for power, and if they are this ruthless in their quest to re-occupy the White House you can be sure she will be just as ruthless in implementing her agenda if she gets into power.

Nurse Ratched will impose her regime with that creepy smile that masks the cunning and bitterness beneath the surface.


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“What does ‘literature’ have to do with saving one’s soul?”

Dealing Life: A Review of Manalive by G.K. Chesterton

Manalive (G. K. Chesterton) (English Edition) di [G. K. Chesterton]

“What does ‘literature’ have to do with saving one’s soul?” This question surely has a long and distinguished lineage, all the way back to the Church Father Tertullian, who asked a similar question about the value of pagan philosophy for Christian study: “What does Athens have to do with Jerusalem?” Far from being an obstacle to a spiritual life or even a harmless accessory, reading the right kind of stories can be critical to moral formation. The successful parrying and defeat of sin is too adventurous a thing to be fully described in a catechism or completely prepared for by paging through a spiritual writer. Catechisms and spiritual writers are important, but men need stories too. One such tale is Manalive, one of G.K. Chesterton’s most joyful novels and a battle-cry against a deadly sin.

The deadly sin in question is acedia, or “sloth,” as it is most commonly known. While the Fathers of the Church—from the first desert hermits to St. Thomas Aquinas—have always understood and taught that acedia could manifest itself in many more subtle ways than mere “laziness,” the nefarious nature of this sin has been less appreciated by most spiritual writers since the middle ages. Recently, however, prescient writers have begun to look more closely at acedia again. Among these scholars is the Abbot of Wandrille, France, Fr. Jean-Charles Nault. While Fr. Nault’s book on the subject is itself a useful work on the spiritual life, I want to consider the parts of St. Thomas’s thought that he highlights. Fr. Nault points out that St. Thomas gives two definitions of acedia: “Sadness about spiritual good” and “Disgust with activity.”


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